The hottest seven technologies help industrial rob

2022-08-13
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Seven technologies help industrial robots enter the field of aviation manufacturing

in recent years, industrial robots have been widely used in many industries such as automobile, electronics, food, chemical industry, logistics and so on because of their reported advantages of high repetition accuracy, good reliability and strong applicability, which have effectively improved product quality and production efficiency, saved labor and manufacturing costs, and enhanced production flexibility and enterprise competitiveness. In addition, it plays a very important role in ensuring personal safety, improving the working environment, reducing labor intensity and reducing material consumption. At present, the manufacturing process of aerospace products is still labor-intensive, complicated, poor working conditions, supplemented by a large number of tooling fixtures and mainly manual manufacturing. The lack of automatic production capacity has become a bottleneck restricting the improvement of the reliability and production capacity of weapons and equipment. Under the background of China's vigorous development of aerospace, the application of industrial robots in automated production in aerospace manufacturing enterprises is of great significance and value to the transformation and upgrading of enterprise production mode and the improvement of advanced equipment manufacturing capacity

in the aerospace manufacturing field, industrial robots not only need to complete typical operations such as dispensing, welding, spraying, heat treatment, handling, assembly and testing, but also need to carry out special operations such as drilling, riveting, sealing, trimming, composite material laying, nondestructive testing and so on. Different from the traditional manufacturing industry, aerospace product manufacturing has the characteristics of large size, complex structure, high accuracy of performance indicators, heavy load, high environmental cleanliness and special materials. It puts forward higher requirements for the structure, performance, action process and reliability of industrial robots. In addition, the multi variety and small batch production characteristics of aerospace products also require industrial robots to have good flexibility and scalability. Through rapid reconstruction, robot systems that can adapt to new environments and new tasks can be formed

with the gradual deepening of the application of industrial robots in the field of aviation manufacturing, some deficiencies have also begun to appear, such as the low degree of automation of job planning and interference collision detection, long production preparation time for positioning and calibration and offline programming, and insufficient consideration of job flexibility and scalability, resulting in low equipment utilization. Sometimes, the advantages of robots cannot be reflected in the single piece and small batch production mode of aviation products

therefore, industrial robots in the future aviation manufacturing field need to better adapt to the changing task requirements and complex site environment under the single piece and small batch production mode, improve the positioning and motion accuracy, shorten the off-line programming and production preparation time, and improve the utilization rate of equipment, so as to truly display the advantages and characteristics of robots. The following technologies will become the key enabling technologies of commonality

(1) high precision measurement and positioning technology. The repetitive positioning precision of industrial robots has excellent elasticity and a variety of hardness, high selectivity and low absolute positioning accuracy, which can not meet the absolute positioning accuracy requirements in aircraft digital assembly. Therefore, high-precision measuring devices are needed to guide the robot terminal to implement the servo control of the motion trajectory of the China Saudi Arabia joint venture 700000 tons/year coal to olefin new material project. At present, laser tracker and IGPS are mainly used in large-scale measurement. Monocular vision, binocular vision, hand eye vision and laser ranging sensors have their own advantages in local measurement. In some special occasions, acoustic and force sensors are also useful. It can be predicted that multi-sensor information fusion technology will be further developed

(2) terminal accuracy compensation technology. Robot terminal accuracy is affected by many factors, such as kinematic interpolation, robot load, stiffness, mechanical clearance, tool wear, thermal effect and so on. Therefore, in addition to using high-precision measuring instruments, establishing positioning error model and compensation algorithm is also an important means to improve positioning accuracy. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the parameters of the joint stiffness, position error, deformation caused by temperature, etc. of the robot, obtain the error model or error matrix, and then provide servo correction for the positioning of the end effector through the accuracy compensation algorithm

(3) intelligent planning technology. The robot is the carrier of automation. Whether drilling, spraying, welding, cutting, assembly, gluing or dispensing, it ultimately relies on the robot end to complete the operation in strict accordance with the predetermined trajectory. Therefore, the result of trajectory planning directly affects the working efficiency and efficiency of the robot, while the efficiency and automation of trajectory planning directly affect the production preparation time. Based on the in-depth understanding of the process, it is an important research direction to realize automatic path planning, robot trajectory optimization, automatic interference verification, process parameters and process optimization

in order to improve the intelligent degree of robots, artificial intelligence methods such as expert systems, fuzzy systems, evolutionary computing, group computing, machine learning, neural networks and so on will be introduced in large numbers, while image recognition, speech recognition, speech synthesis, natural language understanding and other technologies will also be widely used to increase and improve human-computer interaction. In addition, the rapid development of cloud computing, big data and other technologies, resource sharing, knowledge sharing, data mining and other concepts provide new ideas for improving the analysis, decision-making and collaboration capabilities of robots

(4) robot control technology. Because industrial robot is a nonlinear and multivariable control object, combined with position, torque, force, vision and other information feedback, compliance control, force position hybrid control, visual servo control and other methods have been widely used and studied. Facing the operation requirements of high speed, high precision and heavy load, the control method of robot will still be the focus of research

(5) innovative design of robot body structure. Due to the particularity of the structure of aviation products, traditional industrial robots sometimes cannot meet the needs. With the gradual deepening of robot technology in the field of aviation manufacturing, there is an increasing demand for special, special and non-standard robots, which means that it is necessary to carry out innovative design of the body structure for specific tasks and expand the application field of robots

(6) reconfigurable flexible machining cell technology. In the manufacture and assembly of aircraft, the large number, large size and variety of tooling frames are a great expense. The future tooling will adopt modular design, and change the pattern of tooling by moving various dynamic modules to adapt to different sizes and types of products. The frameless digital assembly technology center being developed by Airbus is the product of this concept. The center is an assembly workstation combining software and hardware, integrating integrated digital tooling and various assembly, adjustment and detection technologies, which can greatly improve the efficiency of aircraft assembly

(7) digital manufacturing system support technology. In the digital process design and product manufacturing mode with model-based definition (MBD) as the core, the three-dimensional process digital simulation, tooling digital simulation and inspection digital simulation derived from the three-dimensional design digital simulation have become the basis for robot job planning and offline programming. Therefore, job planning based on three-dimensional digital simulation, assembly process visualization based on lightweight model Digital detection based on MBD and integrated data management based on MBD are indispensable. In addition, the future robot off-line programming and control system needs to be more open, including supporting standard 3D data format, providing standardized data access interface, interconnection with manufacturing information system, etc

with the breakthrough and progress of these key technologies, the future aviation manufacturing robots will develop in the direction of intelligence, flexibility, dexterity and collaboration, in order to adapt to the rapid development of aviation manufacturing industry and emerging new needs:

① intellectualization. Existing industrial robots need to be taught manually or programmed offline to perform tasks. Improving the intelligence of positioning and calibration, job planning and collision detection, in order to shorten the production preparation time, is an important development direction of industrial robots in the future. People even hope that future robots can plan and control their own behavior in real time, and complete the work independently, rather than just limited to action repetition

② flexibility. Traditional industrial robots pursue speed and precision. They have large weight, volume, power consumption and rigidity, but in some special occasions, they have joint force feedback ability and 2. The pointer of the experimental machine does not move: light robots with flexible joints have more advantages because of their small self weight, low power consumption, high load/self weight ratio and compliance control ability

③ dexterity. Aerospace manufacturing often needs to work in complex and hidden product spaces, such as the monitoring of the interior of aircraft panels, the fastening and sealing of standard parts, and the measurement, installation, spraying, inspection of air inlets. Articulated redundant degree of freedom robots show good prospects because of their large workspace and high flexibility

in terms of walking mechanism, industrial robots mostly adopt track structure, which occupies a large working space and ground, and the cost of plant investment and maintenance is high. It is a more economical way to install industrial robots on wheeled or crawler mobile platforms to achieve the purpose of mobile manufacturing around parts. Crawling robots that use vacuum adsorption devices to achieve workpiece surface attachment are also worthy of attention

④ collaboration. Double arm or multi arm robots have been paid more and more attention by many scientific research institutions at home and abroad. Abb, KUKA, Yaskawa and other international well-known robot manufacturers have carried out the development of related products. At present, there have been reports of using double arm coordinated robots for the automatic placement of aerospace composites

in addition, despite the rapid development of robot technology, it is impossible to completely replace people. Integrating robots into production, making robots work side by side with people, eliminating the protective isolation between man and machine, and freeing people from simple and boring work, and then engaging in more value-added work has always been the most ideal and attractive aviation manufacturing mode in people's minds. At the end of 2012, Germany, Austria, Spain and other countries jointly launched the Valeri program with the support of the future factory project of the seventh framework program of the European Union. Its purpose is to achieve advanced robot recognition and man-machine collaborative operation. Airbus also made a bold attempt in its futurassy project of aircraft assembly, applying the humanoid double arm robot developed by Kawada Industry Co., Ltd. of Japan to the A380 rudder assembly workstation to rivet together with ordinary human employees

facing the characteristics of large-scale, high-precision, multi variety and small batch production in the aerospace manufacturing field, improving quality, reducing cost and rapid response are important means for aerospace manufacturing enterprises to deal with market competition and industry development. Industrial robots will play an important role in the transformation and upgrading of enterprise production mode and improving the advanced manufacturing capacity of equipment. At present, new materials, high-precision machining and complex assembly have put forward new requirements for the technical application, manufacturing concept and management planning of industrial robots, which requires close cooperation between manufacturing enterprises and robot R & D teams to explore breakthroughs in various key technologies faced in the application, so as to realize the continuous innovation of industrial robot technology in the aerospace manufacturing field

China's aviation manufacturing industry is in a stage of rapid development. The continuous emergence of new materials and new processes and the demand for high-quality, low-cost and flexible manufacturing make enterprises urgently need technology and

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