The history of near infrared spectroscopy from 166

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From 1666: development history of near infrared spectroscopy in 1666, young Newton returned to his hometown in the countryside for vacation in order to avoid the plague. He has independently completed several works that can be recorded in the history of science there, laying an important foundation for the three university disciplines of mathematics, mechanics and optics. One day, he shot a beam of light through a small hole in the dark room window. On the way, he placed a prism and shone the light on the white wall. He found a band of light with red, orange, yellow, green, green, blue and purple. According to this experiment, Newton deduced that the white light of the sun was a mixture of seven colors of light, and named this phenomenon "spectrum". This is the beginning of the history of human research on spectrum

however, in the following 140 years, Newton's discovery did not receive enough attention and no new research progress was made. It was not until the 19th century that some scientists in Europe began to study spectra again, with more new discoveries and achievements. It was also in 1800 that William Herschel, a British astronomer, discovered the near-infrared spectral region. It is worth mentioning that the later telescopes named after him mainly used infrared spectrometers to capture infrared light

after this discovery, nearly 140 years passed again. It was not until the second world war that scientists used infrared technology to analyze the quality of oil and rubber that they began to promote the development of infrared spectroscopy. The first infrared spectrometer was also developed in the 1930s. However, compared with the infrared spectrum driving into the "fast lane", the near-red electron universal experimental machine is very common in our life. The external spectrum is not popular in the early stage of development, because scientists believe that the data availability of the near-infrared spectrum is very small. Later, with the birth and development of stable power supply, signal amplifier, photon detector, microcomputer and other technologies, the near-infrared spectrum as an independent spectral region with unique information characteristics was paid attention to

in the 1950s, Karl Norris proposed the relative NIR quantitative analysis technology by using the multi wavelength multiple linear regression method, which played an important role in the formation of the theoretical system of the later systematic near-infrared spectroscopy technology. With the appearance of simple near-infrared spectrometer, near-infrared spectroscopy has finally become a practical analysis technology and began to be widely used in the analysis of agricultural and sideline products. In the 1960s, Norris also developed the world's first near-infrared scanning spectrometer, which became the prototype of the near-infrared spectrometer in the future. However, with the emergence of various new "experimental comparison results indicating that the analysis technology, and the weakness of low sensitivity and poor anti-interference of the near-infrared spectrum at that time, the development of the near-infrared spectrum entered a silent period

Since the 1980s, driven by computer technology, the overall development momentum of analytical instruments has been strong. People have finally realized the value of near-infrared spectroscopy, and have carried out a series of application research in related fields. In the 1990s, near-infrared spectroscopy has been widely used in the field of analysis, and has entered a period of rapid development since then

there is an upsurge of near-infrared spectroscopy application research in the world, and China has also started the development of near-infrared spectroscopy instruments. However, it is difficult to establish a mathematical model for quantitative analysis, so the application of near infrared spectroscopy in various fields in China has been affected. With the joint efforts of many scientific research institutes, universities and enterprises, at present, some hardware R & D achievements of different material change experimental machines of near-infrared spectroscopy Jinan assay have been industrialized and transformed into commercial instruments. The key performance indicators of some products have even reached the international level, and have played an active role in petrochemical, agricultural and other fields. In contrast, China has also made great achievements in chemometrics methods and software development. Many units, such as Research Institute of petrochemical industry and China Agricultural University, have developed chemometrics software suitable for near-infrared spectral analysis. Compared with international popular software, domestic software is more suitable for Chinese people in terms of interface language and operation habits, and its main functions are not inferior

when we see the achievements, we should also see the gaps. At present, the core components of domestic near-infrared spectrometers still depend on imports, and the overall performance and intelligent level are significantly different from those of international advanced products. At the same time, domestic software still needs to be strengthened in algorithm research, specialized software development and timely upgrading. In the future, the main development direction of near-infrared spectroscopy will be miniaturization, specialization, intelligence and field integration. Combined with emerging technologies such as big data and artificial intelligence, what is the future of near-infrared spectroscopy? Please wait and see

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