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Li Yizhong: accelerate the adjustment, transformation and upgrading of industrial structure

Li Yizhong, member of the Standing Committee of the CPPCC National Committee and former Minister of the Ministry of industry and information technology, recently visited China's economy, and expounded the necessity of accelerating the adjustment, transformation and upgrading of industrial structure in combination with the current situation of China's industrial economic development

the attack of haze rings the alarm bell of transformation

: haze is one of the most concerned issues of the current public. Studies have shown that the distribution of degraded haze sites in China and even the distribution of heavy industry are almost completely coincident. How do you see this problem

Li Yizhong: haze weather occurs frequently in this winter, especially in Beijing Tianjin Tangshan area. I suggest that relevant parties, especially research departments and environmental protection departments, give a comprehensive, scientific and complete explanation to the definition, connotation and causes of haze

I personally believe that there are at least five causes of haze: industrial emissions, thermal power generation emissions, automobile emissions, heating, cooking and other daily coal emissions, desertification and other ecological damage brought about by sand and dust

therefore, industrial pollution is indeed one of the main reasons, but it is unreasonable to completely blame industrialization for the haze weather. In fact, everyone has a certain responsibility

the frequent occurrence of haze has once again sounded the alarm for us, forcing us to carry out industrial structure adjustment and production mode transformation and upgrading. Haze control must address both the symptoms and root causes. When the haze is serious, we can implement stricter automobile traffic restriction policies and suspend the production of some factories. These are all palliative measures and cannot fundamentally solve the problem. The fundamental solution is to improve the production process, which is a step closer than simple treatment. For example, thermal power generation needs to be transformed according to the new national standards to make the flue gas emission meet the standards

of course, the most fundamental thing is to adjust the industrial structure. For example, China's coal resources are mainly concentrated in the central and western regions, while economically developed regions that need a lot of coal are concentrated in the eastern coast. A large number of thermal power plants have been built along the coast, which plays a role in promoting the local economy, but the fuel needs long-distance transportation, which is unreasonable. The best way is to integrate coal and electricity, let resource rich places generate electricity, and then transmit it to the eastern coast through UHV, so that the power plants in the East can be gradually shut down. In addition, we should develop more clean energy such as wind power and solar energy

transformation mainly depends on the enterprise's own motivation

: some small and medium-sized enterprises have concerns about transformation and upgrading, because transformation requires innovation investment. If the innovation is not successful, the investment is very high, but still becoming the first choice of customers may be lost, and the risk is too high. What do you think of this problem

Li Yizhong: there must be investment in transformation and upgrading, which requires technological transformation of enterprises. This is the transformation of the original stock, and the focus is on quality improvement. There are also risks in technological transformation, that is, to see whether the technological route is right, whether the choice is new technology, new process, new equipment, new materials, and the level of entrepreneurs and decision makers. However, compared with the new construction, the risk is still smaller, because the investment is less, and the existing devices can be used as collateral. Therefore, I believe that small and medium-sized enterprises should pay attention to technological transformation, technological innovation and technological progress

: what do you think of mergers and acquisitions in the process of transformation and upgrading

Li Yizhong: Merger and reorganization is a powerful means to optimize productivity, and the purpose is to improve the industrial concentration of some industries. For example, steel, automobile manufacturing, petrochemical and other industries through reorganization and merger, let large enterprises and advantageous enterprises merge small enterprises and relatively poor enterprises, so that the level of productivity is bound to be improved, and can give birth to a larger scale of backbone enterprises with better economic benefits. Of course, not all industries need to take this step

difficulties in the restructuring process are inevitable, such as the departure and retention of personnel, the combination of labor, etc. Mergers and acquisitions are not simple mergers. After mergers and acquisitions, internal institutions should be streamlined, backward productivity should be eliminated, and internal productivity should be optimized

in addition, reorganization and merger will also bring a series of problems, such as layoffs, training, re employment, etc. if these problems are not handled well, they may bring resistance to reorganization and merger

another important point is that mergers and acquisitions should mainly rely on the enterprise's own power to prevent matchmaking

the key to transformation and upgrading lies in innovation

: you said that the era of market for technology has passed, and innovation is the only way out. How do you understand innovation in industrial transformation

Li Yizhong: innovation is a broad concept. p>

entrepreneurs should pay attention to the introduction, digestion, absorption and re innovation, and the transformation and integration flexibility of scientific and technological achievements can reach five times the innovation of steel. Generally speaking, original innovation is difficult, costly and risky, so we should be tolerant of scientists' innovation. Failure is a normal phenomenon. Enterprises should still focus on application innovation. Therefore, the road of innovation is very wide, and there are a lot of things to be done. We must not be hungry to innovate. Only when we innovate, improve, transform and improve, the enterprise efficiency will be better and better, not only can we eat enough, but also eat better and better

: at the two sessions last year, you said that if the reform is not done now, the time will be delayed. In another five years, if we still discuss the transformation mode and structure adjustment like this, it will be bad. Then the size of the electronic universal experimental machine itself is not a small piece of equipment, and the economy will not be able to support it. A year has passed. What do you think of the future reform

Li Yizhong: we should promote reform and development with greater political courage and wisdom in accordance with the requirements of the 18th CPC National Congress. Of course, the strength of reform, the speed of development and the degree of acceptability of the people should be combined, and should be carried out actively and steadily. Reform should have top-level design, path and schedule of reform, and specify tasks. I think it is possible to further accelerate the speed of reform and intensify reform

as an important part of the reform, we should also have the courage to explore, practice and innovate on the road of industrial structure adjustment, transformation and upgrading, constantly summarize experiences and lessons in exploration and practice, and constantly improve and perfect, so that we can make great strides forward and develop healthily

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